Q – How do I get an Amateur / “Ham” Licence?
The following information relates to the United Kingdom (UK ONLY)
Amateur Radio Licenses in the UK are controlled by OFCOM and are obtained by passing the relevant RSGB (Radio Society of Great Britain) tests and examinations.
At this time there are three levels of radio licence: the FOUNDATION, the INTERMEDIATE, and the FULL and the tests for each level must be completed before the next level can be attempted. As the Foundation and the Intermediate levels both include some practical assessments they must be undertaken with some form of training or supervision, the Full licence requires only completion of the written examination and can be self-taught.
There are generally no limitation on the Modes available to Amateur Radio operators at any level and Foundation, Intermediate and Full Licence holders can use AM, FM, SSB, CW or Digital Modes such as PSK31 or SSTV. Foundation licenses are limited to HF, plus 2m and 70cm and may not use FSTV, but Intermediate and Full licenses have access to the full amateur radio spectrum.
Each of the three RSGB written examinations comprise multiple choice questions. They must take place in a Registered Location under the Supervision of RSGB Registered Examiners. There is a fee payable for each examination (and again payable if failed and reattempted).
Contrary to popular belief, there is NO requirement for a CW / Morse Test in the UK licenses any more and previous “Class A” and “Class B” licence holders now enjoy exactly the same privileges.
|Foundation Licence Training.The Foundation is the entry level amateur radio licence and requires basic knowledge of radios, transmitting and operation, and understanding simple electronics and circuits.Although set at a basic introduction level it does require some learning, understanding and remembering fact and figures in order to pass the written exam. It also requires completion of a number of practical assessments: such as making a VHF contact; making a HF contact; SWRing an aerial; and an “Appreciation of Morse” before the written test can be taken. For this reason it is usually necessary to undertake a training course or session at an Amateur Radio Club or other organisation. Some clubs run the Foundation training on one evening per week, over the course of about six weeks with the written test on the final evening. Other places may offer “Intensive Courses” over one or two weekends.The Appreciation of Morse Practical session is not a test. There is no requirement to send or receive any specific number of Words Per Minute, it is simply to ensure that the Student understands what Morse is, and can send and receive signals in a test environment. The send and receive can be repeated as often as necessary, and taken as slowly as necessary, and the student has a written Morse sheet in front of them at all times.A lot of the old-school “City and Guilds” Amateur Radio Operators now claim that Foundation licenses are “given away on Cornflakes packets”. While the level of the Foundation Training is indeed Basic, it is not a walk-over and does take some concentration and study in order to pass. Anyone walking into the examination with no prior study and under impression “I’ve had a CB for twenty years, what do I need to learn?” is likely to fail. |
The RSGB publish a book, “Foundation Licence Now” which covers the entire syllabus. If the book has been read and understood, and the salient points remembered, then the written exam will be passed with ease.
|Intermediate Licence TrainingAt the Intermediate level there is significantly more detail involved, an understanding of electronic components is required and a much higher level of practical assessments must be completed before the written examination can be attempted.Amongst the practical assessments required for the Intermediate licence is a requirement to build an appropriate electronic “Project” either from published plans or from a commercial kit, so an understanding of components and circuit diagrams is vital, as are some soldering skills. Typically the project might involve building something like an 80m HF Receiver, or a Notch Filter, or a SWR Meter and Matcher perhaps. It is important to check with the Trainer that whatever Project is planned is appropriate and complex enough to qualify as the Passed Assessment. For example, building a simple SWR Meter would be considered too basic. Other elements of the practical assessments involve building a simple circuit to test various components and tuning a VFO.As with the Foundation Level training, some ARC clubs offer Intermediate Training over a period of perhaps ten or thirteen weeks, or possibly over a period of three or four weekends. Again as for the Foundation Level, there is an RSGB Book “Intermediate – Building on the Foundation” that contains all the information required to pass the written test, plus details of the practical elements that need to be completed.|
|The Full LicenceThe full licence is the highest level of Amateur Radio Licence available in the UK. It involves no practical work, but a very much higher level of knowledge and understanding of electronics, radios, radio theory and aerial theory is required before sitting the written examination.The Full Licence gives the same privileges as the preceding “City and Guilds” examination and provides the Radio Operator with a significant amount of freedom (and therefore also responsibility) in terms of equipment that can be used, the amount of power that is available. Full licence holders are also permitted to operate radio equipment outside the UK.There are less Training opportunities available at the Full Licence level and a significant proportion of students prepare by home-study, perhaps with Revision Sessions organised by Clubs and Organisations. But some ARC do offer the full Advanced Training Course.As for the other two levels, there is an RSGB Book available “Advance, the Full Licence” which contains all that is needed to successfully pass the written examination.|
|FOUNDATION||10w||HF (160m to 10m), VHF (2m) and UHF (70cm)|
Commercially made equipment only
|INTERMEDIATE||50w||All UK Amateur Frequencies|
Can build / Repair equipment from kits or published plans
|FULL||400w||All UK Amateur Frequencies|
Can build / Repair equipment from scratch
Can operate abroad where reciprocal agreements exist
Can operate Maritime Mobile with permission of the Ship’s Master.
At first, Amateur Radio Station Call-signs appear to comprise a semi-random collection of letters and numbers, but there is some logic involved (although they’re not as simple to understand as the generally accepted and used FreeBand call-signs). The first letter (nearly always) identifies the country in which the licence was issued, and the remaining letters and numbers identify the individual that holds the licence, and perhaps some information about the level of licence held.
|LICENCE||Current Typical Format||Meaning / Historical||Examples|
|FOUNDATION||M6abc||“M” indicates a UK Licence, “6″ indicates the licence is Foundation level “abc” are the individual’s unique identification letters|
Previous to “M6″ Licenses, Foundation holders were issued “M3″. There is no difference in the two, the change to M6 was simply made because the majority of M3 call-signs had been used.
|M6MAD, M6ERG, M3CDE, MD4CAT|
|INTERMEDIATE||2x0abc||“2×0″ indicates a UK Intermediate Licence), “x” is the Regional Identifier (see below) “abc” are the individual’s unique identification letters||2E0QWE, 2W0DAI, 2M0MCC|
|FULL||M0abc||“M” indicates a UK Licence, “0″ indicates the licence is Full level “abc” are the individual’s unique identification letters|
Previous to “M0″ Licenses, all UK Class 1 and Class 2 Licenses were prefixed “G”.
Before the Morse requirement was lifted the last digit usually indicated a Class 1 or Class 2 licence determining whether the licence holder had completed the mandatory Morse Speed Test and could use HF frequencies, or was limited to VHF and above. Now all “G” licenses and “M0″ have exactly the same privileges.
|M0SDY, M0DAN, MI0MIL|
A Summary of UK Callsigns follows:
|Call sign||Issue dates and details|
|G2 + 2 letters||1920 – 1939|
|G3 + 2 letters||1937 – 1938|
|G4 + 2 letters||1938 – 1939|
|G5 + 2 letters||1921 – 1939|
|G6 + 2 letters||1921 – 1939|
|G8 + 2 letters||1936 – 1937|
|G1 + 3 letters||1983 – 1988 – originally issued as Class B licence|
|G2 + 3 letters||Originally issued as “Artificial Aerial” licence|
|G2 + 3 letters||Originally issued as “Artificial Aerial” licence|
|G3 + 3 letters||Issued between 1946 and 1971. Originally issued to amateur radio Class A licence holders|
|G4 + 3 letters||Issued between 1971 and 1985. Originally issued to amateur radio class A licence holders.|
|G5 + 3 letters||Originally issued to foreign nationals as a form of reciprocal ham radio licence. They were withdrawn|
and either they used existing home calls with additional UK prefix / callsign, or if applicable they could
apply for UK licence.
|G6 + 3 letters||1981 – 1983. Originally issued as a class B licence|
|G7 + 3 letters||1989 – 1996. Originally issued as a class B licence|
|G8 + 3 letters||1964 – 1981. Originally issued as a class B licence|
|G0 + 3 letters||1986 – 1996. Originally issued as a class A licence|
|M1 + 3 letters||1996 – . Originally issued as a class B licence.|
|M0 + 3 letters||1996 – . Originally issued as a class A licence|
|M3 + 3 letters||Foundation licence.|
|M6 + 3 letters||Foundation licence, from May 2008.|
UK Amateur Licenses also include a Mandatory Prefix and an optional (but recommended Best Practice) Suffix when used.
|PURPOSE: – The Prefix Letter indicates from which Country within the United Kingdom the Radio is currently being operated. If no Prefix is shown it is assumed to be operating in the Default Country, England. However, for Intermediate licenses (only) the “E” is required (eg 2E0MLN).||MEANING: – Inclusion of the Suffix letters used to be Mandatory but is now optional (although Recommended). The letter(s) indicate the type of location from which the station is transmitting.|
|POSSIBLE PREFIX LETTERS: |
|POSSIBLE SUFFIX LETTERS: |
|PREFIX EXAMPLES: |
|SUFFIX EXAMPLES: |